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Ingyenes szállítás 10.000 Ft felett

 
Solar Max: Back from the Edge THE MESSAGE to Houston was urgent, but there was little in Bill Stew-art's voice to betray the strain of saving a dying satellite: "The doubts are we won't make it through the next eclipse." NASA's sophisticated orbiting observato-ry, "Solar Max," was at the brink...
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2940 Ft
Szállítás: 3-7 munkanap
Személyes ajánlatunk Önnek

Sky & Telescope February 1982 [antikvár]

James B. Kaler, Michael Kobrick, Spencer R. Weart

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2940 Ft

Sky & Telescope December 2002 [antikvár]

Charles A. Wood, Joe Heafner, Stuart J. Goldman

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2940 Ft

Esa Bulletin February 2002 [antikvár]

A. Thirkettle, C. Haigneré, J. Louet, R. Ewald, S. Badessi

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3140 Ft

Sky & Telescope October 1982 [antikvár]

Eugene Kranz, Jesse L. Greenstein, Kenneth Gatland

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2940 Ft

Sky & Telescope January 1984 [antikvár]

Edgar Everhart, Peter M. Millman, Thornton Page

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2940 Ft

Esa Bulletin August 1996 [antikvár]

B. Charrat, G,. Cavallo, M. A. C. Perryman, V. Domingo, W. Wamsteker

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3140 Ft

Sky & Telescope August 1984 [antikvár]

Ann Finkbeiner, Anthony L. Peratt, Konrad Rudnicki

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2940 Ft

Sky & Telescope December 2000 [antikvár]

Charles A. Wood, Gary Seronik, Stuart J. Goldman

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2940 Ft
Részletesen erről a termékről
Bővebb ismertető
Solar Max: Back from the Edge THE MESSAGE to Houston was urgent, but there was little in Bill Stew-art's voice to betray the strain of saving a dying satellite: "The doubts are we won't make it through the next eclipse." NASA's sophisticated orbiting observato-ry, "Solar Max," was at the brink of disaster, and Stewart's team of controllers at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Matyland, knew their best ef-forts might make little difference. For 12 hours they had struggled to sta-bilize the tumbling spacecraft enough to turn its solar-power arrays toward the Sun, and they were making headway. But as Solar Max sped toward the Earth's shadow on the evening of April 8th it seemed bat-tery power would run out before they could claim success. It would be an untimely end to the $230-million Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite, launched on Valentine's Day of 1980 to keep watch on the Sun during the peak of its activity cycle. After just 9Vj months in orbit, long enough to tantalize scientists with clues to the nature and origin of solar flares, Solar Max suf-fered a crippling loss of its attitude-control system. No longer able to point their craft precisely, SMM engineers managed to send it into a gentle, toplike spin that kept the Sun within view of three of its eight in-struments (see page 498). The premature loss, disappointing as it was to astronomers, presented NASA with a golden opportunity. SMM was the first satellite designed for retrieval by the Space Shuttle. It came equipped with a fixture that could be grappled using an orbiter's robotic arm. On April 6th, after two full years of planning and painstaking rehear-sal, five astronauts soared into orbit to re-store what one scientist terms "one of the most versatile arrays of scientific instru-ments ever flown." Two of the crew would become space-walking repairers, using a set of specially designed tools to replace both the faulty attitude-control module and an electronics box for the ailing coronograph-polarime-ter. Astronomers' hopes for success were shared by shuttle planners and astronauts, who knew that a repaired Solar Max would be clear proof of all of the orbiter's advertised capabilities for retrieving and repairing satellites. That, however, was to be a hard-won trophy. THE CRISIS BEGINS Astronaut George Nelson, at the controls of a nitrogen-powered jet pack, waited for orbital sunrise on April 8th before heading out into open space to the slowly turning Solar Max. Aiming for a metal trunnion (pin) on its side, he planned to anchor himself to the satellite before halting its ro- Prelude to a crisis: Astronaut George Nelson jets across open space toward the crip-pled Solar Maximum Mission satellite. tation with bursts of compressed nitrogén from his jet pack. Then SMM would be an easy target for Challenger s mechanical arm, which would place the 4,500-pound satellite in the cargo bay. (A day earlier the arm had released the 21,400-pound Long Duration Exposure Facility.) It didn't work out that way. Bill Stewart and his team watched as Nelson gently collided with Solar Max, then pulled away as his grapple device refused to work. A second and third try brought no success; Nelson simply bounced off the trunnion. In the Goddard control center all had the sudden realization that things had gone very wrong — the force of Nelson's impacts had set the observatory tumbling. Any further efforts would do more harm than good, Stewart thought, and he put in a call to the Johnson Space Center in Houston. "I was saying, 'Leave the spacecraft. Leave it alone,' " he recalled later. But before the request could work its way through the chain of communications, Nelson was moving hand-over-hand to the end of one of the satellite's twin solar panels. With the world looking over his Shoulder, Nelson hung on and tried to make Solar Max stable enough for a grab by the orbiter's mechanical arm. But soon he was too low on fuel to do anything but return to the orbiter. Once Nelson was back, commander Robert Crippen brought Challenger in close for a last-ditch attempi. Crewmember Terry Hart tried sev-eral times to grab onto the SMM grapple fixture with the arm's cylindrical "hand" but could not. Precious maneuvering fuel dwindled with each attempt, and the astronauts were forced to abandon their quarry, whose tumbling was now faster and more chaotic than before the rescue attempt. Stewart was not aware of Challenger as it pulled away to a safe distance. He was too busy studying data from the troubled satellite. Already power was lessening from the starving solar panels, which faced the Sun little more than a minute out of every four. There was nothing the astronauts could do, and without intervention from the ground Solar Max would simply continue to tumble, drawing power from its batteries to exhaustion. The engineers at Goddard turnéd to a backup control system that was their only means of saving Solar Max. It used a set of electromagnets (called "torquer bars") parallel to the spacecraft's three axes. Small gyroscopes sense SMM's orientation in space and, through the onboard computer, direct surges of current to the torquer bars. This creates a magnetic field that works with or against the Earth's magnetic field, as needed, to nudge the spacecraft in the desired direction. Controllers used the system to keep the craft in a l°-per-second roll for 3 Vi years before Challenger s visit. Now, however, it was spinning at roughly that rate about two axes and 0.6° per second about the third.
Termékadatok
Cím: Sky & Telescope June 1984 [antikvár]
Szerző: Allan Hendry , Bruce E. Woodgate Martin Woodard
Kiadó: Sky Publishing Corporation
Kötés: Tűzött kötés
Méret: 220 mm x 280 mm
Allan Hendry művei
Bruce E. Woodgate művei
Martin Woodard művei
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